Introduction to ML monitoring

TruEra Education ML Monitoring

Machine Learning monitoring refers to the process of continuously observing and measuring the performance of machine learning models in production environments to detect various model issues, ensure overall model quality. Monitoring encompasses various aspects, including model performance, and data quality to ensure that ML models continue to make reliable predictions and decisions.


Effective machine learning monitoring involves a series of well-defined steps and processes to ensure the ongoing reliability of models in production. Let’s break down the key components:

  • Monitoring: monitoring includes the capability to track multiple model versions, facilitating A/B testing and shadow testing to identify shifts in model behavior.
  • Alerting: Alerting refers to the notifications that ML teams receive when metrics cross specific thresholds. Automated testing is a fundamental aspect of AI model maintenance. AI teams establish automated performance, explainability, and fairness tests to guide decisions regarding model selection, retraining, and the validation of model fixes. These tests can seamlessly integrate into automated model training pipelines, streamlining the maintenance process.
  • Observability and root cause analysis (RCA): Accurate debugging is essential for identifying the causes of AI application failures. Robust RCA capabilities enable the calculation of feature contributions to model errors or score drift, offering granular insights into the entire model or specific model segments. This level of precision in debugging simplifies the process of pinpointing the root causes of issues, a feature often lacking in other observability solutions.
  • Explainability: Explainability is vital for understanding  AI model behavior and detecting potential problems. It encompasses local, feature group, and global explainability, to help identify  conceptually unsound features, both on a global scale and within specific model segments.
  • Analytics and RCA: Analyzing model segment performance based on input model data is crucial to improve AI models. It enables the identification of model hotspots with suboptimal performance, allowing for targeted enhancements and optimizations.
  • Quality assessment (fairness, drift, business KPIs): Evaluating overall AI quality goes beyond performance metrics. Quality assessment encompasses aspects like explainability, model bias, fairness, and custom metrics. This holistic evaluation ensures that AI applications align with ethical and quality standards, promoting responsible AI practices.
  • Responsible AI: Ensuring AI models are free from bias and adhere to ethical guidelines is critical. Tools are employed to evaluate models for bias and fairness, particularly with respect to protected groups or custom-defined groups. This step is essential for maintaining ethical AI practices.
  • High scalability: Scalability is crucial for handling production AI applications. The ability to ingest and analyze models with billions of records is vital for ensuring that AI systems can accommodate growing data volumes and maintain optimal performance.
  • Deployment and integration: The ease of deploying and integrating monitoring solutions is essential for their adoption. Flexibility in deployment options ensures that AI monitoring solutions can be tailored to the specific needs of the organization. Seamless integration with commonly used predictive models further simplifies the implementation process.


  • Detection speed and accuracy: When anomalies or issues arise in ML models, detecting them swiftly and accurately is essential. Delayed detection can lead to incorrect model outputs and potentially costly consequences. Implementing  a robust monitoring system helps in real-time tracking and rapid identification of model issues. Such a system continuously analyzes model performance metrics and data quality, setting up alerts to promptly signal anomalies. Machine learning models can also enhance detection accuracy by identifying patterns that may not be obvious through traditional monitoring.
  • Data drift and concept drift: Data used for training ML models may not always match the real-world data distribution, leading to data drift. Additionally, shifts in the underlying relationships between input data and model outputs, known as concept drift, can affect model performance. To mitigate these risks, monitoring tools should track both data and model metrics. By comparing data distributions between training and production data, it is possible to identify shifts that may impact model performance. 
  • Model fairness and bias: Monitoring for model fairness involves tracking the performance of the model across different demographic groups. Machine learning fairness metrics, such as statistical parity, can help identify unfair bias. When unjustified disparities are detected, interventions such as retraining with more balanced datasets or adjusting model features may help address the problem. 
  • Scaling across environments: Deploying ML models in diverse environments, whether on-premises or in the cloud, can pose challenges for monitoring, as different platforms may require distinct  integrations. Using a monitoring software designed to work across various model development and deployment platforms ensures flexibility. These tools  offer seamless integration capabilities with popular ML platforms like Sagemaker, Azure ML, and Google AI Platform, as well as the ability to deploy on-premises or in different cloud environments.


Continuous monitoring not only enhances model performance but also builds trust among stakeholders, making it an essential component of any successful ML deployment. As machine learning continues to evolve, robust monitoring practices will remain at the forefront of maintaining its value and integrity.

To learn more about machine learning monitoring techniques, tools and best practices, please read the other articles in this section.

Last modified on October 5th, 2023